Saturday, May 23, 2020
The Ã¢â¬Å"challengeÃ¢â¬ of living in simulated poverty is only half of what the Two Dollar Challenge is really about. The other side is doing the fourteen readings, short stories, and blog posts and five films. These readings focused on topics surrounding the Ã¢â¬Å"white-savior industrial complexÃ¢â¬ and how local people are working to solve their communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ problems. The conversations that took place surrounding these readings and films were also helpful when analyzing some of the more controversial articles. Shawn HumphryÃ¢â¬â¢s The Do-Gooder Industrial Complex describes the current way that many people Ã¢â¬Å"do goodÃ¢â¬ in relation to global poverty. Humphry argues that we should move from Ã¢â¬Å"Be a voice for the voicelessÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"Why not try listening?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"BarefootÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Meg went on to say that they realized that her groupÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose was to just learn about the people and culture. Barefoot in Church by Gary Adams, et al describes a situation where the white-savior complex is alive and well. A couple essentially uses a boy who does goes to school barefoot for personal gain. They bring him to church where he is humiliated, while the couple most likely receives praise for helping the boy. By the end of the story it can be inferred that the entire process did more harm than good for the boy. Stories like this are frustration because the couple benefited at the expensive boy who they were trying to help. Even if they had good intentions, it is hard to be Ã¢â¬Å"okayÃ¢â¬ with what they did. In To Hell with Good Intentions by Ivan Illich This reading was hard to deal with and we had a long discussion about volunteering and intervening in other countries. The idea that we should not participate is valid in many circumstances. However, the extent that Ivan pushed his point of non-intervention is too far. A total hands-off approach does not seem to be that beneficial. His perspective is necessary in that it causes those who plan to go work abroad or even in just a different environment/culture to think critically about what they will be doing. The paper emphasis that it is about learning before doing (or not doing depending on the situation), which is an
Monday, May 11, 2020
Karl Marx is the revolutionary founding father of communism and Marxism, while Niccolo Machiavelli expounded upon the concept of realism through his work The Prince. These two concepts have been the foundations that various countries and governments have tried to utilize in hopes of constructing a utopian society. Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Trier Germany, studying history, philosophy, and law at the universities of Berlin, Jena, and Bonn. Karl Marx did not like the production portion of Capitalism; he found it to be a signal of great trouble. Marx believed that the production stage of capitalism worked in a way that the rich owners of these companies benefited whereas the poor workers did not. So the rich will get richer and the poorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Therefore, states will act as rationally as possible to protect themselves, utilizing whatever necessary means and power to secure them. Countries would stock pile and hoard all elements of national power like political s tability, abundance of raw material, cultural hegemony, economic capabilities, etc. but never really engage in conflict. A good correlation to this theory is the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Both countries never directly engaged in conflict with one another, but they knew of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities and in return created stock piles of nuclear weapons, creating an arms race (Taylor 2011, pg 138). At the same time realists believe that international institutions are not as significant as understanding what the capabilities are of their country and where it ranks within the international system. The biggest concept behind realism is expounded upon in MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s work The Prince, where he elaborates on the significance that power is the answer to end all political conflict and one should strive to maximize their individual power (Political Realism). Marxism and realism are by far two political theories that are in the opposite direction of t he spectrum. Marxism has the main focus of teamwork and equality for one another, and that is what will create a utopian society; whereas realism fosters internal competition to strive for power in hopes of creating a strong and powerful countryShow MoreRelatedEssay Biography of Karl Marx1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBiography of Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, social scientist, and revolutionist whose writings formed the beginning of the basic ideas known as Marxism. Although he was largely disregarded by scholars in his own lifetime, his social, economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death. With the help of Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx created much of the theory of socialism and communism that we know today. Karl Marx was bornRead MoreEssay on Biography of Karl Marx1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBiography of Karl Marx Only in the course of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s history can a person born over a hundred years ago be as famous today as they were back then. Karl Marx is one person that fits this category. He paved the way for people of the same political background as his own. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were unique and started uproar all over Europe. Marx helped write the Communist Manifesto one of the most important pieces of literature on Communism ever written. At one time people feared Communism asRead More Biography of Karl Marx Essay1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBiography of Karl Marx Karl Marx was a professional intellectual and philosopher. Throughout Marxs life, chance meetings with other professional intellectuals and philosophers helped guide Marx to his final destination. Although Marx died in March of 1883, some 122 years ago, his theories are still being studied, and in some cases, used in some governments. In his lifetime Marx explored many different social settings and groups. His final accumulation of work can be found inRead More Biography of Karl Marx Essay1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBiography of Karl Marx Few names evoke as strong a response as Karl Marx. Some consider him a genius and a prophet, while others see only evil in his ideas. Everyone agrees that Marx stands among the social thinkers with the greatest impact on the worlds people. There are many people who pass into and out of our lives. It is those great people that are remembered forever. One great person is Karl Marx. He is an extraordinary person that has changed and shaped the wayRead More Biography of Karl Marx Essay1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBiography of Karl Marx Karl Marx, the author of the Communist Manifesto, is viewed to be one of the greatest social thinkers of his time. His social, political and economical thoughts are still highly regarded today. The life of this man is stamped with many accomplishments and ideas that have been adopted by many prominent figures. As a historian, philosopher, and revolutionary, Karl Marx has helped shaped the society of the past, present and future. Karl MarxRead More Biographies of Karl Marx and Frederich Engels Essay1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBiographies of Karl Marx and Frederich Engels Karl Marx and Frederich Engels collaborated to introduce the liberal ideas of Communism. The Communist Manifesto was their byproduct that was introduced in January of 1828. Marx and Engels lives were drastically different from each other, although they both agreed upon the fundamental ideas of it. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of being an individual stemmed from the life that he lived. Marx found that his ideas were often not accepted in various societies but thisRead MoreA Very Breif Biography of Karl Marx570 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesKarl Marx was born in Trier in Prussia in 1818, and he passed away in London in 1883. The overall approach characterized in Marxs theoretical writings and his analysis of capitalism can be defined as historical materialism, or the materialist perception of history. Actually, that view may well be deemed the foundation of Marxism. Marx contested that the superstructure of society was predicated precisely by the productive roots of society, so that the main system must always be seen in relation toRead MoreBiography Of Karl Marx s Writing On Class Conflict1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesociety is told that through hard work and dedication anyone can become successful. Success in the United States is looked at as being a part of the elite. Though it may seem like the status may easily be reached, this is not, in fact the case. Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s writing on class conflict suggest otherwise. Class conflict is still very relevant in present dayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and can be seen throughout the levels of class. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society you can see class conflict in the way that working class is under paidRead MoreThe Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswritten by Karl Marx and have forever changed the course of history. On May 5, 1818, Karl Heinrich Marx was born in Trier, Prussia (modern day Trier, Germany) to Heinrich and Henrietta Marx. Throughout KarlÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling years, he was considered to be an ordinary student; he was not an outstanding student and did not take school seriously. In 1835, Marx began his college career at the University of Bonn, a college known for their rebellious students and wild parties. All too quickly Marx was sweptRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Common Sense By Thomas Paine1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTse-Tung. Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢ works, Capital and The Communist Manifesto, have forever changed the course of history. On May 5, 1818, Karl Heinrich Marx was born in Trier, Prussia (modern day Trier, Germany) to Heinrich and Henrietta Marx. Throughout KarlÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling years, he was considered to be an ordinary student and did not take school seriously. In 1835, Marx began his college career at the University of Bonn, a college known for their rebellious students and wild parties. All too quickly, Marx was swept
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Levittown project was taken up in the U.S. after the end of Second World War, with the aim of providing mass housing facilities to people in the wake of increasing urbanization and problems of accommodating large population in limited urban area (Friedman. We will write a custom essay sample on Levittown Experiment or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1995). The first of Levittown apartments were constructed on Long Island, New York and they symbolized the modern trends of urbanization and housing developments (Clapson. 2003). This paper shall study the impact of Levittown project on trends of further urbanization and analyze the aesthetics of design and development involved in it. American urban housing system was not in a very good state at the end of Second World War. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers had started to return back to the mainland, filled with the dream of better and improved life (Baxandall and Ewen, 2000). Euphoric and buoyed by a hard fought and historic win, where U.S had established its military supremacy in the world, these people had great dreams and aspirations to continue in the legacy of that supremacy. This aspiration manifested itself most prominently in their demand for housing infrastructure, built with modern age planning, design, and latest infrastructure: houses that could symbolize U.SÃ¢â¬â¢s great power stature and their own triumph in being a part of this transition. Meanwhile the Congress announced special housing loans for returning war veterans where they could get loans on zero down-payment and little mortgage. Suddenly there was a great boom in the demand of urban housing, compared to which the available apartments fell drastically short (Baxandall and Ewen, 2000). Millions of war veterans and citizens were homeless or living in makeshift houses looking expectedly upon government to provide them with affordable houses (Jackson. 1985). However, the strong private construction lobby was pressuring Congress to get out of the housing business, but the past record of private housing industry was patchy and they were not expected to live up to demand of providing millions of houses on affordable prices in a quick time (Baxandall and Ewen, 2000; Clapson. 2003). Abraham Levitt, a prominent builder, understood the importance of providing housing to people of every income range and he responded to the situation by constructing rows of identical four room apartments at Long Island, New York,that were offered to veteran war soldiers for only $60 a month (Jackson. 1985; Clapson. 2003). Levittown, the mass housing facility designed and constructed by Levitts, was vehemently criticized by architects for producing homogenous and suffocating environment and being antithetical to lofted architectural principles (Jackson. 1985). But the critics ignored the fact that, Levitt could not incorporate the lofty and stylist architectural designs that were hallmark of most of Victorian style villas and bungalows and yet produce houses on mass scale, in quick time and provide them for sale at most affordable prices. His aim was to construct the best houses at least cost to provide most economical housing. The fact was that Levitt had successfully fulfilled the demands and dreams of many Americans of owning their own house. Debate, Design and Impact of Levittown To fully appreciate the significance of Levittown, it must be seen in context of the great housing demand of the period 1945-46, the intense effort of private construction giants to force the government to abandon its idea of affordable and mass housing which could seriously jeopardize the corporate game plan of selling expensive houses and flats (Baxandall and Ewen, 2000). There was intense public debate in U.S. around the issue and the corporate construction house tried to discredit mass scale housing by comparing it to slums and hotbed of communism and crime (Jackson. 1985). Despite the well organized and orchestrated campaign against mass housing, public opinion did not waver much, and the expectations for large scale affordable housing remained a public issue (Baxandall and Ewen, 2000). People required housing, and they expected it was their right to get a decent home. High architectural designs and lofted aesthetics meant nothing to them if they resulted in homes that they could look, admire, but could not own. Against this real challenge, Lewitt and Sons took upon themselves to meet the affordable housing demand by assuming equally pragmatic approach. Levitt used special techniques and architectural designs to keep the cost of production at lowest and speed of construction at maximum. He divided entire construction procedure of houses in 26 separate steps that required professional prefabricated components. This approach greatly reduced the construction time. Many of the building components such as nails, concrete blocks, lumber and electrical appliances were procured by Levitt and sons themselves, further minimizing the cost (Friedman. 1995). The method of Levitt was so successful that by 1949Ã the first 2000 planned houses by Levitt were ready to be sold and occupied .. The first of Levitt apartment constructed on Long Island came to be known as Levittown and although they were described as drab, unimaginative and common by critics, they served their purpose of providing millions of American with their own house (Friedman. 1995). Alfred Levitt recognized his own achievement in describing himself as Henry Ford of American housing industry, where he was producing houses at assembly line speed (Friedman. 1995). Levitt also successfully warded off the criticism of his uniform Cape-Cod style of housing by mixing his next colonies with Cape-Cods, Rancher and Colonial style houses, that ranged from $ 5500 to $ 14500 (Jackson. 1985; Clapson. 2003). Levittown were constructed in New Jersey and Pennsylvania as well, with equal success and revolutionizing effect on community living and development. Although attempts were made to associate them with low class life, and blandness of taste, as the houses took the character of their owners who modified and transformed them, each of them emerged as a singular entity that was precious to their owner. Conclusion The impact of LevitÃ¢â¬â¢s design had far reaching effect on construction and design of further mass scale housing projects not only in U.S but in other countries as well. LevittÃ¢â¬â¢s designing innovation and successful efforts to construct affordable housing had given millions of not so well-to-do Americans their first opportunity of realizing a dream, secure their present, and lay the groundwork of building a strong future. Reference Avi Friedman. 1995. The Evolution of Design Characteristics During the Post-Second World War Housing Boom: The Us Experience. Journal of Design History. Volume: 8. Issue: 2. Rosalyn Baxandall and Ewen, Elizabeth. 2000. Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened. Basic Books. New York. Kenneth T. Jackson. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. Oxford University Press. New York. Mark Clapson. 2003. Suburban Century: Social Change and Urban Growth in England and the USA. Berg. New York. Ã Ã How to cite Levittown Experiment, Essay examples
Thursday, April 30, 2020
The central idea is that each person ultimately depends on himself or herself. Integrity versus despair is the final stage of Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community. Many older people develop pride and contentment with their personal story. They are proud of their past, faults included. They realize their life is no longer measured in years since birth, but in years before death. Close family members become more important to them, and they continue to try to understand themselves focusing more on the way they will be remembered. Tension occurs between the two opposing aspects of development. Past crises, particularly identity versus role confusion, reemerge when the usual pillars of self-concept crumble. 2. The continuity theory is the theory that each person experiences the changes of late adulthood and behaves toward others in a way that is consistent with his or her behavior in earlier periods of life. We will write a custom essay sample on Learning Objectives or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It assumes that a primary goal of adult development is adaptive change, not homeostatic equilibrium. The Big Five personality traits are maintained throughout old age as in younger years, shifting somewhat but always oriented toward the same life goals. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions to potentially disruptive problems reflect continuity, as do attitudes toward all other topicsÃ¢â¬âdrugs, sex, money, neatness, privacy, health, government. One example of selective optimization is the positivity effect, which is the tendency for elderly people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive images and experiences more than negative ones. Selective memory is a way to compensate for whatever troubles occur; unpleasant experiences are reinterpreted as inconsequential. Research has found that this has both cognitive and social aspects, and in many ways, enhances life in late adulthood. While the positivity effect does not always emerge, self-perception normally tilts toward integrity rather than despair. Most people realize they could have chosen other paths through life, but they also appreciate their particular self. Research on what people hope for themselves and how they perceive themselves finds that, with age, the two selves come closer together. This may explain the contentment that older adults generally feel. 3. Another major set of theories regarding late adulthood that emphasizes the relationship between society and old age are the stratification theories. These theories emphasize that social forces, particularly those related to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s social stratum, or social category, limit individual choices and affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to function in late adulthood as past stratification continues to limit life in various ways. Individual factorsÃ¢â¬âincluding quality of marriage and friendship, personality, and cognitive capacityÃ¢â¬âaffect each personÃ¢â¬â¢s position in his or her society. Nonetheless, stratification theories note significant social restrictions imposed by stratification categories such as age, gender, and ethnicity. Stratification by age is demonstrated as industrialized nations segregate elderly people, gradually shunning them out of mainstream society as they grow older. Stratification by gender is demonstrated as society guides and pressures males and females into divergent paths. Stratification by ethnicity affects every aspect of development, including education, health, place of residence, and employment. 4. Work provides many psychological benefits besides the practical benefit of income. Work provides social support and status, boosting self-esteem. For many people, employment allows generativity and is evidence of productivity, effectiveness, and independence. Some of those who keep working in late adulthood do so because they need the money, while others stay on the job because they appreciate the social recognition and self-fulfillment that work brings. Many people once believed that older adults were healthier and happier when they were employed and that retirement led to illness and death. In the 1980s, legislators outlawed mandatory retirement. The paradox is revealed by finding that since 1980, when older workers were no longer required to quit their jobs at age 65, the average age of retirement has decreased. Rather than preferring to work until they die, many older adults retire as soon as they can. Only when retirement is precipitated by poor health or fading competence does it correlate with illness. If income is adequate, retirement in every nation is more likely to make older adults happy rather than sad. An unexpected social problem has resulted from retirement of workers at relatively young ages. Some professions have too few experienced workers over age 50. Just as employment does not always bring joy, retirees are not always happy as planning is often inadequate, and married couples may disagree as to who should retire, when retirement should begin, and how their lives should be reconstructed. 5. Volunteering offers some of the advantages of paid employment, such as generativity and social connections. There are individual benefits such as better health and less depression, and benefits for society such as help in providing health, education, and other services. Empirical data finds a strong link between good health and volunteering. Steady volunteers are less likely to become depressed or sick. In some ways, late adulthood is an ideal time for continuing education. Many adults have strong intellectual curiosity as well as a wish to understand the deeper meaning of history, literature, philosophy, and other subjects. This approach to education is quite different from younger adults who want skills that will be useful on the job. Older adults are less likely to attend religious services than are the middle-aged, but faith increases with age, as do praying and other forms of eligious involvement. Many studies show that religious beliefs and practices of all kinds are positively correlated with physical and emotional health. Social scientists have studied the reasons for the connection between religion and well-being. They have found that faith encourages a healthier lifestyle, attendance at services fosters social relationships, and belief in a divine plan decreases stress by fostering reinterpretation of past problems, by reducing fear of death. In Europe as well as the United States, the elderly do not seem to be involved in political activism, but by other measures, the elderly are more politically active than people of any other age. More of them write letters to their elected representatives, vote, and identify with a political party. Many government politics affect the elderly, especially those regarding housing, pensions, prescription drugs, and medical costs. 6. Siblings, old friends, and spouses to celebrities, neighbors, and acquaintances can all be a part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social convoy, especially in late adulthood. Spouses buffer each other against problems of old age, thus extending life. It is clear that personal happiness increases with the length as well as the quality of the marriage or intimate relationship. A lifetime of shared experiences brings partners closer in memories and values. 7. Another common event that long-married older adults must face is the death of their spouse. Among the current cohort of women, many have centered their lives on being a wife, mother, caregiver, and homemaker. As a result, the death if a husband means more than a loss of a mate; it means a reduction in status, income, social activities, and identity as someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. With time, many older widows come to enjoy their independence, few seeking another man. For companionship and emotional support, widows usually rely on women friends and grown children, and they typically expand their social connections after a husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. However, widowers are more vulnerable. They are less comforted by their families and have fewer male friends that have lost a partner. Men typically find it difficult to seek and accept help. Elderly widowers are more likely than widows to by physically ill and socially isolated. Their risk of suicide has been found to increase. Although few widowers seek t remarry, they are far more likely to do s than widows are because they tend to be lonelier than the women and thus more strongly motivated to seek companionship, and the sex ratio is in their favor, giving them more potential partners to choose from. For the manÃ¢â¬â¢s mental as well as physical health, remarriage is usually beneficial. 8. Filial responsibility is the obligation of adult children to care for their aging parents. When parents need material goods, adult children often sacrifice to provide them, but emotional support is more crucial and more complex, sometimes increasing when financial help is not needed. Other elders actually resent supportive behaviors such as visiting frequently, giving presents, cleaning the refrigerator, calling the doctor, or even paying the telephone bill. Culture is crucial in determining what specific type of support people expect and who they think should provide it. In the United States, a major goal among adults is to be self-sufficient. The old would rather take care of their own needs, but if that is not possible, they would rather rely on a spouse than on a child. Adult children may be more willing to offer support than their parents are to receive it. A good relationship with successful grown children enhances a parents well-being. By contrast, a poor relationship makes life worse for everyone. Remote grandparents (distant grandparents) are emotionally distant from their grandchildren. They are esteemed elders who are honored, respected, and obeyed, expecting to get help whenever they need it. Companionate grandparents (fun-loving grandparents) entertain and spoil their grandchildren, especially in ways, or for reasons, that the parents would not. Involved grandparents are active in the day-to-day lives of their grandchildren. They live near them, see them daily, and provide substantial care. Ã¢â¬Ë Surrogate parents raise their grandchildren, usually because the parents are unable or unwilling to do so. 9. Activities of daily life (ADLs) are actions that are important to independent living, typically identified as five tasks of self-care: eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from a bed to a chair. The inability to perform any of these tasks is a sign of frailty. Instrumental activities of daily life (IADLs) are actions that are important to independent living and that require some intellectual competence and forethought. The ability to perform these tasks may be even more critical to self-sufficiency than ADL ability. 10. When caregiving results in resentment and social isolation, the risk of depression, poor health, and abuse (of either the frail person or the caregiver) escalates. Most family members provide adequate care despite the stress. However, abuse of the elderly person is likely if the caregiver suffers from emotional problems or substance abuse. Maltreatment ranges from direct physical attack to ongoing emotional neglect. Three distinct elements contribute to the problem: the victim, the abuser, and the community. Abuse is likely when the care receiver is a feeble person who suffers severe memory loss, when the caregiver is a drug-addicted relative, or when care occurs in an isolated place where visitors are few and far between. If any one of those conditions is absent, abuse is less likely. The typical case of elder maltreatment occurs benignly, as an outgrowth of caregiving. Benign beginnings make elder abuse difficult to identify, and family members are reluctant to notify authorities. Sometimes the caregiver becomes the victim, cursed or even attacked by the confused elderly person. As with other forms of abuse, the dependency of the victim makes prosecution difficult. 11. One common form of alternative care if assisted living, which is an arrangement that combines some of the privacy and independence of home life with some of the medical supervision of a nursing home. Skilled gerontologists consider it essential to help each resident retain independence, control over his or her decisions, and self-respect. Their efforts have resulted in new laws, which provide for limitations on the use of restraints and privacy requirements, and better practices, such as more self-management and self-choices. Both correlate with physical and mental well-being as well as a longer, happier life.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Five Tips for Writing a Great Speech Five Tips for Writing a Great Speech Five Tips for Writing a Great Speech By Guest Author As the founder of a speech writing firm, Inkwell Strategies, Ive gotten used to drawing a certain amount of interest from new friends and acquaintances when asked what Ido for a living. After working in this somewhat niche profession for a number of years, I have come to expect questions about what the job entails, and even more frequently, inquiries about how to write a strong speech. There are a lot of different ways to answer that question, but after crafting remarks for leaders in government, nonprofits, and the private sector, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned that there are essentially five rules that all writers should follow in order to write a winning speech: 1. Read your speech out loud Unlike almost all other forms of writing, speechwriting is designed for listeners. So, when reviewing your text, read it to yourself, and pay attention to how the words sound and feel. Do they flow off the tongue, or are they clunky and awkward? If your phrases make you stumble, they are guaranteed to make your boss stumble as well. Just remember that good writing is not necessarily good speech writing. 2. Simple phrases are your friend Keep your sentences short and sweet. Compound phrases with multiple clauses may look great on paper, but are likely to confuse your audience and decrease the effectiveness of your speech. Limit yourself to one or two ideas per sentence, and express them as clearly and powerfully as possible. 3. Do your research Before beginning a speech, make sure to familiarize yourself with the subject, so that you can write about it with confidence and authority. The creative aspects of speech writing are only effective when backed by a strong foundation of knowledge by acredible speaker. The audience must trust your words in order for their meaning to sink in. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re well-prepared, it will show. 4. Mind the time A man once said that the key to crafting a great speech is writing a good beginning and a good ending, and making the two as close together as possible. That might not always be true, but consider this: Abraham LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s Gettysburg address,arguably the most famous speech in American history, lasted less than three minutes. Compare that to the two-hour speech given directly before Lincoln by Edward Everett. If I gave you four-score and seven guesses, could you tell me what he said? 5. Know your audience Your listeners should be a strong determining factor of the content, tone and style of your speech. Before drafting remarks, think about who youÃ¢â¬â¢re speaking to, the venue youÃ¢â¬â¢re speaking at and the timing of your speech. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a time and a place for every type of remarks. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s your job to figure out when and where you are. These are just a few tips to get you started, but there is alot more to speech writing than that. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in learning more, make sure to check out my website for commentary and analysis about the world of speech writing today. This is a guest post by David Meadvin, President of Inkwell Strategies, a professional speech writing and strategic communications firm located in Washington, DC. He was chief speech writer to the U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Senate Majority Leader. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Business Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Classes and Types of PhrasesAwoken or Awakened?40 Words Beginning with "Para-"
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Hurrah for the Index Card! Hurrah for the Index Card! Hurrah for the Index Card! By Maeve Maddox If I were to make a list of the 10 greatest inventions of human history, index cards would be right there along with the alphabet and the stuff you put on the back of your pets neck to kill fleas. I dont know how Id get along with out them. Not counting their other household applications, index cards are the mainstay of my writing projects. Writing about language I keep a stack of index cards by my chair to make notes of language peculiarities I encounter in my reading or TV watching. This is a more useful method of note-taking than my former practice of recording such notes on the backs of envelopes or even in a dedicated notebook. The cards can then be separated into categories such as grammar, vocabulary, and the like. Novel planning I hate to outline, but I have learned that writing a novel requires outliningif not at the beginning, then at some point down the line. Using index cards makes the process more pleasant. Once you have your plot in mind, deal yourself a deck of index cards equal to the number of chapters. Using one card for each chapter, write a one sentence description of what happens in the chapter. As your novel progresses, you will almost certainly want to add or to rearrange chapters. Having your outline on index cards makes rearranging easy. Another set of cards can help you keep the characters and their identifying tags straight. You dont want to give Bruce Bigpecs piercing blue eyes in Chapter One and smouldering black eyes in Chapter Twenty. Record-keeping Something I hate more than outlining is keeping track of important records. I should have known better, but when I began acquiring WordPress accounts and GoDaddy domains, and doing things on line that require usernames and passwords, I wrote the information down in a little notebook next to my computer. Now its a big deal to find a password or an ID. This stuff is going onto index cards. Plenty of computer programs exist for doing the kinds of things Ive described here, but the fact remains that some of us require tactile re-enforcement. Its a psychological delight to be able to hold the stack of chapter cards in your hand and visualize the wonderful novel that is to come of them. And when the computer program crashes or is lost, that box of cards is still going to be there. Low-tech or not, the index card belongs in every writers toolbox. NOTE: We can thank American librarian and efficiency freak Melvil Dewey for the modern cardstock index card. Christened Melville, he dropped the inefficient letters. He experimented with spelling his surname Dui, but apparently that was too exotic to be practical. Heres a writer who shares my addiction to index cards: Lela Davidsons tribute to the index card And heres a brief bio of Melvil Dewey. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Passed vs Past"Replacement for" and "replacement of"1,462 Basic Plot Types
Monday, February 17, 2020
Liberal Art Studies - Essay Example In these regards, rather than workers attempting to directly fight the oppressive nature of their employers they should attempt to work outside this sphere of struggle, and organize opposition that way. Today when one considers the nature of unions, itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that this principles still remains a viable and working approaching to fighting workplace oppression. 2.Would absolute loyalty and unquestioned obedience be useful qualities in a modern professional community? In considering whether absolute loyalty and unquestioned obedience would be useful in a modern professional community, itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that the answer is no. In blindly accepting the rules and regulations of a professional organization one allows the individuals higher on the organizational scale to make decisions unfettered by checks and balances, and allows themselves to be taken advantage of for individual and organizational profit. 3.What drawbacks, if any, might there be in a community dominated by such val ues? ? In considering potential drawbacks, itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that there are a number related to a community founded on such values.